From colonial times, African Americans arrived in large numbers as slaves and lived primarily on plantations in the South.
Visit Website Did you know? During Reconstruction, the Republican Party in the South represented a coalition of blacks who made up the overwhelming majority of Republican voters in the region along with "carpetbaggers" and "scalawags," as white Republicans from the North and South, respectively, were known.
Emancipation changed the stakes of the Civil War, ensuring that a Union victory would mean large-scale social revolution in the South. It was still very unclear, however, what form this revolution would take. Over the next several years, Lincoln considered ideas about how to welcome the devastated South back into the Union, but as the war drew to a close in early he still had no clear plan.
In a speech delivered on April 11, while referring to plans for Reconstruction in LouisianaLincoln proposed that some blacks—including free blacks and those who had enlisted in the military—deserved the right to vote.
He was assassinated three days later, however, and it would fall to his successor to put plans for Reconstruction in place. Apart from being required to uphold the abolition of slavery in compliance with the 13th Amendment to the Constitutionswear loyalty to the Union and pay off war debt, southern state governments were given free reign to rebuild themselves.
These repressive codes enraged many in the North, including numerous members of Congress, which refused to seat congressmen and senators elected from the southern states.
The first bill extended the life of the bureau, originally established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens who were to enjoy equality before the law.
After Johnson vetoed the bills—causing a permanent rupture in his relationship with Congress that would culminate in his impeachment in —the Civil Rights Act became the first major bill to become law over presidential veto. African-American participation in southern public life after would be by far the most radical development of Reconstruction, which was essentially a large-scale experiment in interracial democracy unlike that of any other society following the abolition of slavery.
It is good that the question -- were African Americans free during the period of Reconstruction -- offers the qualifier that the answer need not be absolute, because the answer is not absolute. Nov 20, · Essay on The Civil War and Reconstruction. The Civil War was the turning point in the US history, while the Reconstruction era has completed the achievements of the Civil War and changes launched by the war/5(10). Nov 26, · Reconstruction was also set to protect and help the newly freed African Americans assimilate to the new society and the foreign economy they were placed in. Conditions of the African Americans in the South before, during, and after the reconstruction period were no doubt harsh.
Blacks won election to southern state governments and even to the U. Congress during this period. Reconstruction Comes to an End Afteran increasing number of southern whites turned to violence in response to the revolutionary changes of Radical Reconstruction.
The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist organizations targeted local Republican leaders, white and black, and other African Americans who challenged white authority.
Though federal legislation passed during the administration of President Ulysses S. Grant in took aim at the Klan and others who attempted to interfere with black suffrage and other political rights, white supremacy gradually reasserted its hold on the South after the early s as support for Reconstruction waned.
Racism was still a potent force in both South and North, and Republicans became more conservative and less egalitarian as the decade continued. In —after an economic depression plunged much of the South into poverty—the Democratic Party won control of the House of Representatives for the first time since the Civil War.
When Democrats waged a campaign of violence to take control of Mississippi inGrant refused to send federal troops, marking the end of federal support for Reconstruction-era state governments in the South. In the contested presidential election that year, Republican candidate Rutherford B.
Hayes reached a compromise with Democrats in Congress: In exchange for certification of his election, he acknowledged Democratic control of the entire South.
A century later, the legacy of Reconstruction would be revived during the civil rights movement of the s, as African Americans fought for the political, economic and social equality that had long been denied them.General Various views on subjects regarding American History contributed by various authors.
All views presented are the responsibility of the authors. Nov 20, · Essay on The Civil War and Reconstruction. The Civil War was the turning point in the US history, while the Reconstruction era has completed the achievements of the Civil War and changes launched by the war/5(10).
The Civil Rights Movement Davarian L. Baldwin – Trinity College. At the midpoint of the twentieth century, African Americans once again answered the call to transform the world. One of the most important aspects of Reconstruction was the active participation of African Americans (including thousands of former slaves) in the political, economic and social life of the South.
It is good that the question -- were African Americans free during the period of Reconstruction -- offers the qualifier that the answer need not be absolute, because the answer is not absolute. Watch video · One of the most important aspects of Reconstruction was the active participation of African Americans (including thousands of former slaves) in the political, economic and social life of .