A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. Some lawyers have enumerated the damage that the ambiguity in this clause has effected in a manner far beyond my feeble powers:
Globally ambiguous[ edit ] A globally ambiguous sentence is one that has at least two distinct interpretations. In this type of ambiguity, after one has read or heard the entire sentence, the ambiguity is still present. Rereading the sentence cannot resolve the ambiguity because no feature of the representation i.
Global ambiguities are often unnoticed because the reader tends to choose the meaning he or she understands to be more probable. One example of a global ambiguity is "The woman held the baby in the green blanket.
Locally ambiguous[ edit ] A locally ambiguous sentence is a sentence that contains an ambiguous phrase but has only one interpretation. The ambiguity in a locally ambiguous sentence briefly persists and is resolved, i.
Sometimes, local ambiguities can result in "garden path" sentencesin which a structurally sound sentence is difficult to interpret because one interpretation of the ambiguous region is not the ultimate coherent interpretation.
Examples[ edit ] The duke yet lives that Henry shall depose. The sentence could be taken to mean that Henry will depose the duke, or that the duke will depose Henry. Eduardum occidere nolite timere bonum est.
Ray Davies deliberately wrote this ambiguity into the song, referring to a cross-dresser. John saw the man on the mountain with a telescope. Who is on the mountain? John, the man, or both? Who has the telescope?
John, the man, or the mountain? The word of the Lord came to Zechariah, son of Berekiah, son of Iddo, the prophet. Is the prophet ZechariahBerekiah, or Iddo? Aristotle writes about an influence of ambiguities on arguments and also about an influence of ambiguities depending on either combination or division of words: A common form is the garden path type.
The name crash blossoms was proposed for these ambiguous headlines by Danny Bloom in the Testy Copy Editors discussion group in August British left waffles on Falklands Did the British leave waffles behind, or is there waffling by the British political left wing about Falklands?
Somali Tied to Militants Held on U. Ship for Months Either the Somali was held for months, or the Somali was just now linked to militants who were held for months. One could also imagine rope was involved, at which point lexical ambiguity comes into play.
Landmine claims dog arms company A landmine claimed that a dog was providing weapons to a company, or a landmine laid claim to or destroyed a company producing weapons or prosthetic arms for canines, or assertions about landmines were causing concern to a weapons supplier. In humor and advertising[ edit ] Syntactic or structural ambiguities are frequently found in humor and advertising.
One of the most enduring jokes from the famous comedian Groucho Marx was his quip that used a modifier attachment ambiguity: More than one movie has used the comic line "The peasants are revolting", which allows an interpretation of revolting as both a verb or adjective.
Significantly enough, structural ambiguities may be created by design when one understands the kinds of syntactic structures that will lead to ambiguity, however for the respective interpretations to work, they must be compatible with semantic and pragmatic contextual factors.
Polysemy In syntactic ambiguity, the same sequence of words is interpreted as having different syntactic structures.
In contrast, in semantic ambiguity the structure remains the same, but the individual words are interpreted differently. He denotes by it a confusion of the notions of the pure understanding with the perceptions of experience, and a consequent ascription to the latter of what belongs only to the former.
If probabilistic and linguistic constraints offer comparable support for each analysis, especially strong competition occurs.
On the other hand, when constraints support one analysis over the other, competition is weak and processing is undemanding. After van Gompel et al.
Convincing evidence against competition-based models includes the fact that globally ambiguous sentences are easier to process than disambiguated sentences, signifying that there is no competition of analyses in a globally ambiguous sentence. Plausibility tends to support one analysis and eliminate competition.Nov 19, · How to Write a Personal Bio In this Article: Article Summary Writing a Professional Bio Writing a Bio for a College Application Writing a Personal Bio Sample Bios Community Q&A A personal bio is a great way to express to people who you are and what you do%().
Amphiboly is a fallacy of relevance that relies on an ambiguous word or grammatical structure to confuse or mislead an audience. Adjective: amphibolous. . If you’re inspired, educated, or entertained by our posts, please support us with a small monthly donation.
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I've got an hour to kill and thought I'd post some random stuff while I had time. I will copy some amphibolies (why does Firefox say it's spelled wrong?) from some a random worksheet my professor in my Logic gave us.
Examples and Discussion of the Fallacy of Amphiboly. Often, the reason why this fallacy appears is due to poor or erroneous grammar, as with this example. The fallacy of amphiboly occurs when a sentence, because of its grammar, structure, or punctuation, can be interpreted in multiple ways.
It is an informal fallacy and a fallacy of ambiguity, in that it removes context that is necessary to understand the statement.