Like his master, Aristotle wrote initially in dialogue form, and his early ideas show a strong Platonic influence.
In this system, heavy bodies in steady fall indeed travel faster than light ones whether friction is ignored, or not and they do fall more slowly in a denser medium. Four causes Aristotle argued by analogy with woodwork that a thing takes its form from four causes: His term aitia is traditionally translated as "cause", but it does not always refer to temporal sequence; it might be better translated as "explanation", but the traditional rendering will be employed here.
Thus the material cause of a table is wood. It is not about action. It does not mean that one domino knocks over another domino. It tells us what a thing is, that a thing is determined by the definition, form, pattern, essence, whole, synthesis or archetype. It embraces the account of causes in terms of fundamental principles or general laws, as the whole i.
Plainly put, the formal cause is the idea in the mind of the sculptor that brings the sculpture into being. A simple example of the formal cause is the mental image or idea that allows an artist, architect, or engineer to create a drawing. Representing the current understanding of causality as the relation of cause and effect, this covers the modern definitions of "cause" as either the agent or agency or particular events or states of affairs.
In the case of two dominoes, when the first is knocked over it causes the second also to fall over. The final cause is the purpose or function that something is supposed to serve. This covers modern ideas of motivating causes, such as volition.
History of optics Aristotle describes experiments in optics using a camera obscura in Problemsbook The apparatus consisted of a dark chamber with a small aperture that let light in. He also noted that increasing the distance between the aperture and the image surface magnified the image.
Accident philosophy According to Aristotle, spontaneity and chance are causes of some things, distinguishable from other types of cause such as simple necessity.
Chance as an incidental cause lies in the realm of accidental things"from what is spontaneous". History of geology Aristotle was one of the first people to record any geological observations.
Empirical research Aristotle was the first person to study biology systematically,  and biology forms a large part of his writings.
He spent two years observing and describing the zoology of Lesbos and the surrounding seas, including in particular the Pyrrha lagoon in the centre of Lesbos. He describes the catfishelectric rayand frogfish in detail, as well as cephalopods such as the octopus and paper nautilus.
His description of the hectocotyl arm of cephalopods, used in sexual reproduction, was widely disbelieved until the 19th century. For Aristotle, accidents, like heat waves in winter, must be considered distinct from natural causes.
He was correct in these predictions, at least for mammals: Aristotle did not do experiments in the modern sense. It does not result in the same certainty as experimental science, but it sets out testable hypotheses and constructs a narrative explanation of what is observed. Among these correct predictions are the following.
Brood size decreases with adult body mass, so that an elephant has fewer young usually just one per brood than a mouse.A summary of Ethics and Politics in 's Aristotle. Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Aristotle and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and quizzes, as well as for writing lesson plans.
The purpose of ethics for Aristotle is simply to find the ultimate purpose of human life, once again demonstrating. Introduction to Ethical Studies: An Open Source Reader Chapter "What is the Life of Excellence?" by Aristotle.
Table of Contents Ideas of Interest from the Nichomachean Ethics The Reading Aristotle's purpose in the Nichomachean Ethics is not just to explain the philosophy of the excellence for human beings but also to demonstrate.
Introduction to Aristotle Aristotle was born of a well-to-do family in the Macedonian town of Stagira in BCE. His father, Nicomachus, was a physician who died when Aristotle was young.
Aug 21, · Aristotle’s Early Life Aristotle was born in B.C. in Stagira in northern Greece. Both of his parents were members of traditional medical families, and his .
Aristotle was born to an aristocratic family in Stageira on the Chalcidice Peninsula of Macedonia (a region of northern Greece) in B.C. His father, Nicomachus, was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon, and Aristotle was trained and educated as a member of the aristocracy. Aristotle has thus reduced the possible answers to the question ‘What is a good life?’ to a shortlist of three: wisdom, virtue, and pleasure.
All, he says, connect happiness with one or other of three forms of life, the philosophical, the political, and the voluptuary (1.