InHorton and Wohl explored the different interactions between mass media users and media figures and determined the existence of a parasocial relationship, where the user acts as though they are involved in a typical social relationship. Since then, the term has been adopted by psychologists, in furthering their studies of the social relationships that emerge between consumers of mass media and the figures they see represented there.
Sociability Escape Again, differences were found based on amount of Dissertation on parasocial relationships and gender. Those who used the instant messaging service frequently "heavy users" were found to be most motivated by affection and sociability; those who did not "light users" were most motivated by fashion.
Women chatted longer and for sociability; men chatted for less time per session and for entertainment and relaxation. Achievement, enjoyment and social interaction are all motivations for starting to play an online game, and their success at the game as well as the extent to which their uses were gratified predicted their continuance in playing.
Results show that enjoyment, physical activity, nostalgia, image, normative influences and flow drive various forms of user behavior. In addition, perceived physical risks but not perceived privacy risks lead to weaker forms of usage.
The use of melodramatic animation in news was seen as an emerging technique used in news reporting at the time.
Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were employed for data analysis. In the study, seven motives were identified, through factor analysis, for viewing such animated news videos. These motives included companionship, social interaction, relaxation, information seeking, interpersonal learning, entertainment and pass time.
Entertainment media[ edit ] Research has shown that media taken in for entertainment purposes i. Rehman demonstrated a relationship between gratifications sought and obtained from the movies and movie attendance.
This is the most prominently cited emotional gratification of media use. People prefer to maintain a state of intermediate arousal; this is a pleasant medium. When in a bad mood, bored, or over-aroused, people will seek media as regulation for or distraction from their mood.
Affective disposition theory states that people enjoy "rooting for" characters depicted as good and moral.
Users experience gratification when good things happen to characters with "good" morals and also when bad things happen to "evil" or "bad" characters. This use and gratification for media posits that people like to feel worried for characters we perceive as "good," and this is even more gratifying if that character gets "rewarded" in some way in the end.
This use and gratification can be understood when considering excitement as its own reward. Emotional involvement can be helpful for the pursuit of a broader variety of goals in the reception process.
It can be concluded that the experience of emotions can be functional in a number of other ways than just regulating emotions in terms of affective valence and arousal.
If the user experiences a challenge to his or her media-related skills, but not to the point of being frustrated or overwhelmed, then the gratification is a reward in a feeling of competence that inspires the user to continue using the media in question.
Users are gratified by using media to adjust their mood to whatever is currently happening. For instance, once already provoked by an aggressor and promised a chance to retaliate, males were found to prefer bad news over good news in that emotionally charged moment.Jan 18, · These are the sources and citations used to research Dissertation: Parasocial Interaction.
This bibliography was Forming Parasocial Relationships in Online Communities - Advances in Consumer Research Conference proceedings Court case Dictionary entry Dissertation DVD, video, or film. Mediated interpersonal communication: The role of attraction and perceived homophily in the development of parasocial relationships (Doctoral dissertation, University of Iowa, ).
Dissertation Abstracts International, 53 (1-A), Parasocial relationships are one-sided relationships that consumers have with media characters (Horton & Wohl, ). This dissertation answers recent calls for more Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation Parasocial and School Relationships of Pre-school Children Presented by Kate Szer Kurtin, B.A., M.A.
'Parasocial' relationships with leading celebrities are a modern phenomenon. Chris Arnot talks to an academic who studies fans and their behaviour. This study explores binge-watching as a possible mechanism in the formation of parasocial relationships with media personae as well as a motivator for the negative affects experienced when a persona is no longer included in new content, the phenomenon known as parasocial breakup.
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones Parasocial relationships with celebrities: An illusion of intimacy with mediated friends.