Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing —the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer  some dating back to BC.
Number of Individuals with Internet Access: Though its two daily newspapers are foreign owned, the private press reports vigorously on corruption and political issues.
Comprising the eastern half of the Pacific's largest noncontinental island and over smaller islands, Papua New Guinea is located some 93 miles north of Australia. Its citizens are predominantly Melanesians and Papuan with some Negrito, Micronesians, and Polynesians.
Official languages are English, Tok Pisin the widely spoken Melanesian Pidginand Hiri Motu, but indigenous languages are spoken among 1, tribes throughout the country. Interaction between regions has been largely restricted due to the topography of the land and the diversity of the languages.
Its government is a federal parliamentary system, with periodic free and fair elections, and an independent judiciary. Europeans first sighted Papua New Guinea in The country was divided between the Dutch, Germans, and British towards the end of the nineteenth century. In Australia took over the British sector naming it "the territory of Papua" and then captured the German sector during World War I.
A member of the British Commonwealth, the country became fully independent in Since independence Papua New Guinea has enjoyed strong media growth. In Papua New Guinea's major media consisted of one daily newspaper and one radio network.
There was no television, and universities did not offer journalism training. Bythe region boasted two competing daily newspapers, a weekly English language newspaper, a television station, multiple radio stations, cable and satellite service, two university journalism programs, and several independent Web sites devoted to news and media analysis.
The nation's two daily newspapers, the Papua New Guinea Post-Courier circulation 33, and The National circulation 23,are both in English, with 15 copies per 1, people. The two weeklies, Wantok Niuspepa published in Tok Pisin and The Independent English-languagehave an aggregate circulation of 24, Of these four papers, all but Wantok Niuspepa also publish on the Internet.
They compete aggressively in Port Moresby, but have limited circulation in other urban areas. Another English-language newspaper, the biweekly Eastern Staris published in the city of Alotau, while the monthly, Hiri Niusprints government news in all three official languages, with a circulation of 5, Newspaper circulation has increased steadily.
In aggregate daily newspaper circulation was 39,; by it had increased by 53 percent to 60, But the number of major daily newspapers has not increased since In addition to Christian and national radio networks, the National Broadcasting Corporation has three networks: The latter broadcast in an array of languages spoken in their respective regions.
Some of these languages have been identified, yet only are related, and all are grammatically complex. A few hundred to a few thousand people speak each language. One native language, Enga, is spoken by somepeople, and Melanesian Pidgin serves as the lingua franca. In a Motu-language station, FM Central, was launched.
There are two cable services with access to overseas channels and one local television station. Satellite broadcasting had become available by The nature of media coverage in Papua New Guinea is strongly linked to the isolation of many of its peoples.
The country's population is divided; some 85 percent live in remote villages, retaining ancient cultures and tongues, with little contact with the modern world. Few publications or televisions signals reach its rugged interior, where a multiplicity of tribal languages fragments communication.
In addition to the absence of a common language, Papua New Guinea's literacy rate complicates the country's publishing climate; some 50 percent of its citizens cannot read and own no books aside from a Bible or hymnal.
At the same time a literate, cosmopolitan culture of Australian expatriates bustles in the capital city of Port Moresby, where nearly all major print media are published. In a nation of geographically disparate peoples the majority of New Guineans count on radio as their primary news source rather than television, print, or online media.
The limited influence of Papua New Guinea's print media as a tool of political discourse was demonstrated during the pre-independence elections.
Although the Australian government donated thousands of pamphlets and hundreds of tape recorders, loudspeakers, drawings, projectors, filmstrips, and flipcharts to local candidates, these materials went largely unused.
Political advertising of election coverage and controversial correspondence were absent; not one candidate accepted a newspaper's offer of free publicity. Most print publications in Papua New Guinea represent expatriates and the military, rather than natives.Colophon · The template for the Web edition of this document was marked up by Nick Montfort in valid XHTML with a valid CSS2 style sheet.
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Reading or just going through the headlines of the one's favorite newspaper is not only a habit but also second nature with most persons. Unlike the electronic media, especially the television that brings out news and views round the clock and yet half-succeeds to covert the viewers into its fans, the print media creates a rewarding relationship with its readers.
Equivalence relates the visual properties of photos from different formats based on the focal length and aperture of the lens. Neither the focal length nor the relative aperture of a lens change as a function of sensor (for example, a 50mm f/ lens is a 50mm f/ lens, regardless of the sensor behind the lens).
Essay Print Media, Electronic Media and Role Cable TV ChannelsThe press has become a great power.
It can make or break governments. It can also change the. Essay Print Media, Electronic Media and Role Cable TV ChannelsThe press has become a great power. It can make or break governments. Need help with your essay? Take a look at what our essay writing service can do for you: Click Here!