Banjar 1 Words themselves do not refer to anything, people refer. In discussing deixis, we assumed that the use of words to refer to people and things was a simple matter.
Banjar 11 It is important to recognize that not all referring expressions have identifiable physical referents. Indefinite noun phrases can be used to identify a physically present entity, but they can also be used to describe entities that are assumed to exist, but are unknown, or entities that, as far as we know, do not exist.
Banjar For successful reference to occur, we must also recognize the role of inference. Banjar 15 Inferring is connecting prior knowledge to text based information to create meaning beyond what is directly stated.
Banjar 16 The role of inference in communication is to allow the listener to identify correctly which particular entity the speaker is referring to. The choice of one type of referring expression rather than another seems to be based on what the speaker assumes the listener already knows.
Mister Aftershave is late today. A brand name is used to refer to a person here. Banjar 23 Identifying intended referents has been aided by the linguistic material, or co-text, accompanying the referring expression. The referring expression actually provides a range of reference, that is, a number of possible referents.
However, the different cotexts lead to a different type of interpretation in each case. Banjar 25 The co-text is just a linguistic part of the environment in which a referring expression is used.
The physical environment, or context, is perhaps more easily recognized as having a powerful impact on how referring expressions are to be interpreted.
Banjar 26 Reference, then, is not simply a relationship between the meaning of a word or phrase and an object or a person in the world.
It is a social act, in which the speaker assumes that the word or phrase chosen to identify an object or a person will be interpreted as the speaker intended.
Banjar 27 In English, initial reference is often indefinite. The definite noun phrases and the pronouns are examples of subsequent reference to already introduced referents, generally known as anaphoric reference, or anaphora.
Peel and slice six potatoes. Put them in cold salted water. Banjar 29 Anaphoric reference After the initial introduction of some entity, speakers will use various expressions to maintain reference: The man was holding the cat while the woman poured water on it. In the example the definite noun phrases the man, the cat, the woman and the pronouns it, he, her, they are examples of subsequent reference to already introduced referents, generally known as anaphoric reference, or anaphora.
Banjar 31 In technical terms, the second or subsequent expression is the anaphor and the initial is the antecedent: Banjar 32 When the interpretation requires us to identify an entity, and no linguistic expression is presented, it is called zero anaphora, or ellipsis.
Drop the slices into hot oil. Cook for three minutes.Apr 06, · Reference and Inference Referring is one of the basic things we do with words, and it would be a good idea to understand what that involves and requires. In linguistics, the study of reference belongs to pragmatics,, the study of language use, though it .
Reference is an act in which a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener, or reader, to identify something.: Reference is an act in which a speaker, or writer, uses linguistic forms to enable a listener, or reader, to identify something.
Chapter IV is part of Pragmatics 2 and 5 Reference &Inference, Presupposition & Entailment, And Discourse & Culture Presupposition is before the event.
Entailment is posses by 2 sentences; if the first sentence is true then the second sentence is true. Reference and inference are parts of pragmatics.
is a kind of verbal “pointing to” or “picking out” of a certain object or individual that one wishes to say something about. states that under the heading of reference we encounter one of the most fundamental and vital aspects of language and language use. Pragmatics is a sub-field of linguistics and semiotics which studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
Unlike semantics, which examines meaning that is conventional or "coded" in a given language, pragmatics studies how the. Pragmatic Referece and Inference 1. George Yule: Words themselves do not refer to anything, people refer. We might think of reference as an act in which a speaker, writer, or user linguistic form to enable a lister or reader, to identify something Febri Ari Sandi