His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa.
His mother was Susanna Fontanarossa. Bartolomeo worked in a cartography workshop in Lisbon for at least part of his adulthood. In one of his writings, he says he went to sea at the age of Inthe Columbus family moved to Savonawhere Domenico took over a tavern.
Some modern historians have argued that he was not from Genoa but, instead, from the Aragon region of Spain  or from Portugal.
Later, he allegedly made a trip to Chiosan The life and times of christopher columbus island then ruled by Genoa. He docked in BristolEngland  and GalwayIreland.
Inhe was possibly in Iceland.
Columbus based himself in Lisbon from to Between andColumbus traded along the coasts of West Africareaching the Portuguese trading post of Elmina at the Guinea coast in present-day Ghana. He returned to Portugal to settle her estate and take his son Diego with him. Columbus recognized the boy as his offspring.
Columbus entrusted his older, legitimate son Diego to take care of Beatriz and pay the pension set aside for her following his death, but Diego was negligent in his duties.
According to historian Edmund MorganColumbus was not a scholarly man. Yet he studied these books, made hundreds of marginal notations in them and came out with ideas about the world that were characteristically simple and strong and sometimes wrong, For example, part of the argument that he submitted to the Spanish Catholic Monarchs when he sought their support for his proposed expedition to reach the Indies by sailing west was based on his reading of the Second Book of Esdras Ezra: Towards the end of his life, he produced a Book of Prophecies in which his career as an explorer is interpreted in the light of Christian eschatology and of apocalypticism.
With the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks inthe land route to Asia became much more difficult and dangerous.
Portuguese navigators tried to find a sea way to Asia. Afonso rejected his proposal. Meanwhile, in the s, the Columbus brothers had picked up Toscanelli's suggestion and proposed a plan to reach the Indies by sailing west across the "Ocean Sea", i.
However, Dias's discovery had shifted the interests of Portuguese seafaring to the southeast passagewhich complicated Columbus's proposals significantly.
Christian writers whose works clearly reflect the conviction that the Earth is spherical include Saint Bede the Venerable in his Reckoning of Time, written around AD In Columbus's time, the techniques of celestial navigationwhich use the position of the sun and the stars in the sky, together with the understanding that the Earth is a sphere, had long been in use by astronomers and were beginning to be implemented by mariners.
These measurements were widely known among scholars, but confusion about the old-fashioned units of distance in which they were expressed led to some debate about the size of the Earth.
He also believed that Japan which he called "Cipangu", following Marco Polo was much larger, farther to the east from China "Cathay"and closer to the equator than it is, and that there were inhabited islands even farther to the east than Japan, including the mythical Antilliawhich he thought might lie not much farther to the west than the Azores.
In this, he was influenced by the ideas of Florentine astronomer, Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelliwho corresponded with Columbus in  and who also defended the feasibility of a westward route to Asia. The true figure is now known to be vastly larger: Most European navigators reasonably concluded that a westward voyage from Europe to Asia was unfeasible.
The Catholic Monarchshowever, having completed an expensive war in the Iberian Peninsulawere eager to obtain a competitive edge over other European countries in the quest for trade with the Indies. Columbus's project, though far-fetched, held the promise of such an advantage.
During his first voyage inthe brisk trade winds from the east, commonly called " easterlies ", propelled Columbus's fleet for five weeks, from the Canary Islands to The Bahamas. The precise first land sighting and landing point was San Salvador Island.
Instead, Columbus returned home by following the curving trade winds northeastward to the middle latitudes of the North Atlantic, where he was able to catch the " westerlies " that blow eastward to the coast of Western Europe. There, in turn, the winds curve southward towards the Iberian Peninsula.
The corresponding technique for efficient travel in the Atlantic appears to have been exploited first by the Portuguese, who referred to it as the Volta do mar "turn of the sea". Columbus's knowledge of the Atlantic wind patterns was, however, imperfect at the time of his first voyage.
By sailing directly due west from the Canary Islands during hurricane seasonskirting the so-called horse latitudes of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus risked either being becalmed or running into a tropical cycloneboth of which, by chance, he avoided.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. See Columbus’s log of October , , reproduced in Robert Fuson’s The Log of Christopher Columbus, pp. Oct 05, · A worker removing the red paint from the hand of a Christopher Columbus statue in Central Park on Tuesday.
Statues of the 15th-century explorer have come under scrutiny amid a . Christopher Columbus (/ k ə ˈ l ʌ m b ə s /; before 31 October – 20 May ) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
He led the first European expeditions to the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, initiating the permanent European colonization of the Americas.
A brief History of the island of Saba from her Volcanic foundation to present day! A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus is a biographical account of Christopher Columbus.
It is one of the first examples of American historical fiction and one of several attempts at national myth-making undertaken by American writers and poets of the 19th century. . (Italian CRISTOFORO COLOMBO; Spanish CRISTOVAL COLON.).
Born at Genoa, or on Genoese territory, probably ; died at Valladolid, Spain, 20 May His family was respectable, but of limited means, so that the early education of Columbus was defective. Up to his arrival in Spain () only one date has been preserved.
His son Fernando, quoting from his father's writings says that in.