Early American writers first had to ensure their own survival before they could think about writing for entertainment. These early writings were more about keeping historical records than of creating something with literary value, so these works would be narratives, descriptions, observations, reports, journals, and histories. We need to be mindful of this when reading them in this current day.
Like the Freedom Rides ofthe Journey of Reconciliation was intended to test an earlier Supreme Court ruling that banned racial discrimination in interstate travel. Rustin, Igal RoodenkoJoe Felmet and Andrew Johnnson, were arrested and sentenced to serve on a chain gang in North Carolina for violating local Jim Crow laws regarding segregated seating on public transportation.
Their plan was to ride through Virginiathe Carolinas, GeorgiaAlabamaand Mississippiending in New Orleans, Louisianawhere a civil rights rally was planned.
Many were in their 40s and 50s. Some were as young as The Freedom Riders' tactics for their journey were to have at least one interracial pair sitting in adjoining seats, and at least one black rider sitting up front, where seats under segregation had been reserved for white customers by local custom throughout the South.
The rest of the team would sit scattered throughout the rest of the bus. One rider would abide by the South's segregation rules in order to avoid arrest and to contact CORE and arrange bail for those who were arrested. The pair made plans to bring the Ride to an end in Alabama.
They assured Gary Thomas Rowean FBI informer  and member of Eastview Klavern 13 the most violent Klan group in Alabamathat the mob would have fifteen minutes to attack the Freedom Riders without any arrests being made.
The plan was to allow an initial assault in Anniston with a final assault taking place in Birmingham. Anniston[ edit ] On May 14, Mother's Day, in Anniston, Alabamaa mob of Klansmensome still in church attire, attacked the first of the two buses the Greyhound.
The driver tried to leave the station, but was blocked until KKK members slashed its tires. Sources disagree, but either an exploding fuel tank  or an undercover state investigator brandishing a revolver caused the mob to retreat, and the riders escaped the bus.
Only warning shots fired into the air by highway patrolmen prevented the riders from being lynched. Some injured riders were taken to Anniston Memorial Hospital. The local civil rights leader Rev.
Fred Shuttlesworth organized several cars of black citizens to rescue the injured Freedom Riders in defiance of the white supremacists. The black people were under the leadership of Colonel Stone Johnson and were openly armed as they arrived at the hospital, protecting the Freedom Riders from the mob.
They beat the Freedom Riders and left them semi-conscious in the back of the bus. This picture was reclaimed by the FBI from a local journalist who also was beaten and whose camera was smashed.
White Freedom Riders were singled out for especially frenzied beatings; James Peck required more than 50 stitches to the wounds in his head. Kennedyhe urged restraint on the part of Freedom Riders and sent an assistant, John Seigenthalerto Alabama to try to calm the situation. Despite the violence suffered and the threat of more to come, the Freedom Riders intended to continue their journey.
Kennedy had arranged an escort for the Riders in order to get them to Montgomery, Alabamasafely. However, radio reports told of a mob awaiting the riders at the bus terminal, as well as on the route to Montgomery.
The Greyhound clerks told the Riders that their drivers were refusing to drive any Freedom Riders anywhere. When they first boarded the plane, all passengers had to exit because of a bomb threat. She pushed to find replacements to resume the rides.
On May 17, a new set of riders, 10 students from Nashville who were active in the Nashville Student Movement, took a bus to Birmingham, where they were arrested by Bull Connor and jailed.
Out of frustration, Connor drove them back up to the Tennessee line and dropped them off, saying, "I just couldn't stand their singing. On May 19, they attempted to resume the ride, but, terrified by the howling mob surrounding the bus depot, the drivers refused.Martin Luther King Jr.
being denied entry to the "whites-only" Monson Motor Lodge restaurant by owner James "Jimmy" Brock. Barry also took several black and white still pictures in the city about ten years earlier in , above is an example "Amongst all the scenes of our children, I found I'd taken some footage in.
King intuits how significant it is that he lacks the support of his fellow clergymen, and he pens this letter in response, saying that he has come to Alabama because “injustice is here" and he considers injustice to be a threat to all people, irrespective of geographical, racial, or other artificially constructed demographic categories that divide people.
To Theodore Pappa's credit, he further identified that King's 'Letter from a Birmingham Jail'; the 'I Have A Dream Speech'; and his Nobel Prize lecture, also "contained significant portions taken . Click Here to Apply for #LwC Today! JLUSA believes that America’s most challenging barrier to expansive, systemic criminal and juvenile justice reform is the absence of clear and consistent leadership by those who have been directly affected by our failed criminal justice policies.
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